Geography Lesson

NCERT Class 8 English Chapter 2 Geography Lesson
NCERT Class 8 English Chapter 2 Geography Lesson

Can you imagine what your city would look like if you saw it from ten thousand feet above the ground? Neatly planned and perfect in proportion like a geometric design, it would strike you as something very different from what it actually is while you are in the thick of it.
Here is a poet’s description of just such a view of the city, and some questions that come to his mind.
कल्पना कीजिए कि आप अपने शहर को दस हज़ार फीट ऊपर से देख रहे हैं! यह कैसा दिखेगा? क्या यह एकदम सही ज्यामितीय आकारों वाला, साफ-सुथरा और अनुपात में बिल्कुल सही लगेगा? यह बिल्कुल अलग होगा, जमीन पर रहते हुए जो अनुभव होता है, उससे।
यह कविता उसी दृश्य का वर्णन करती है, और साथ ही कुछ सवाल भी खड़े करती है जो कवि के मन में आते हैं।

When the jet sprang into the sky,
it was clear why the city
had developed the way it had,
seeing it scaled six inches to the mile.
There seemed an inevitability
about what on ground had looked haphazard,
unplanned and without style
When the jet sprang into the sky.
When the jet reached ten thousand feet,
it was clear why the country
had cities where the rivers ran
and why the valleys were populated.

कविता बताती है कि जब वो हवाई जहाज से ऊपर उड़ता है, तो उसे शहर का एक अलग नज़ारा दिखता है. जमीन पर रहते हुए जो शहर अव्यवस्थित और बिना किसी सोच-समझ के बना हुआ लगता था, वो ऊपर से देखने पर एकदम व्यवस्थित और ज्यामितीय आकार का दिखाई देता है. इसी तरह, जब जहाज थोड़ा और ऊपर जाता है, तो कवि को ये भी समझ आता है कि नदियों के किनारे और घाटियों में ही शहर क्यों बसे होते हैं

The logic of geography —
that land and water attracted man —
was clearly delineated
When the jet reached ten thousand feet.
When the jet rose six miles high,
it was clear the earth was round
and that it had more sea than land.
But it was difficult to understand
that the men on the earth found
causes to hate each other, to build
walls across cities and to kill.
From that height, it was not clear why.

फिर, जब जहाज बहुत ऊपर उड़ जाता है, तो कवि को ये स्पष्ट हो जाता है कि पृथ्वी गोल है और उस पर ज़्यादातर पानी है. लेकिन उसे ये बात समझ नहीं आती कि धरती पर रहने वाले लोग आपस में लड़ते क्यों हैं, दीवारें क्यों खड़ी करते हैं और एक-दूसरे को क्यों मारते हैं. इतनी ऊंचाई से देखने पर ये सब चीज़ें कवि को बेकार लगती हैं।

इस कविता का उद्देश्य छात्रों को ये सोचने के लिए प्रोत्साहित करना है कि दुनिया को कैसे एक बेहतर जगह बनाई जा सकती है. ये बताता है कि ऊपर से देखने पर सीमाएँ और लड़ाई-झगड़े मूर्खतापूर्ण लगते हैं।

  1. Find three or four phrases in stanzas one and two which are likely to occur in a geography lesson.
    (i) “scaled six inches to the mile” (represents map scale)
    (ii) “the logic of geography” (a concept in geography)
    (iii) “cities where the rivers ran” (location of settlements near water bodies)
    (iv) “valleys were populated” (favorable conditions for settlements in valleys)
  2. Seen from the window of an aeroplane, the city appears
    (i) as haphazard as on ground. (Incorrect)
    (ii) as neat as a map. (Correct)
    (iii) as developed as necessary. (Incorrect)

Reasoning: From a high altitude, the city’s unplanned layout appears more organized, resembling a map.

  1. Which of the following statements are examples of “the logic of geography”?
    (i) There are cities where there are rivers. (Correct)
    (ii) Cities appear as they are not from six miles above the ground. (Incorrect)
    (iii) It is easy to understand why valleys are populated. (Correct)
    (iv) It is difficult to understand why humans hate and kill one another. (Not related to geography)
    (v) The earth is round, and it has more sea than land. (Not related to the logic of geography placement of settlements)

Reasoning: The logic of geography explains how geographical features influence human settlements. Statements (i) and (iii) showcase this connection.

  1. Mention two things that are
    (i) clear from the height.
    (a) The city’s overall structure and layout (appears more organized)
    (b) The reason for settlements near rivers and valleys (geographical advantage)
    (ii) not clear from the height.
    (a) The reasons for conflict and hatred among humans (social and psychological factors not visible from above)
S.No.Chapter’s Name
Chapter 1.The Best Christmas Present in the World
The Ant and the Cricket
Chapter 2.The Tsunami
Geography Lesson
Chapter 3.Glimpses of the Past
Notes for the Teacher (Units 4-7)
Chapter 4.Bepin Choudhury’s Lapse of Memory
The Last Bargain
Chapter 5.The Summit Within
The School Boy
Chapter 6.This is Jody’s Fawn
Chapter 7.A Visit to Cambridge
Notes for the Teacher (Unit 8)
Chapter 8.A Short Monsoon Diary
On the Grasshopper and Cricket
Chapter 9.The Great Stone Face-I
Chapter 10.The Great Stone Face-II
NCERT Class 8 English Chapter 2 Geography Lesson

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